Alaska Gold Rush History and Genealogy





US Geological Paper 610

Southeastern Alaska, the panhandle of Alaska, is the narrow coastal strip that extends southeastward from the main peninsula and is bordered on the north, east, and southeast by Canada. Important gold-producing districts in this region are Juneau, Chichagof, Ketchikan-Hyder, and Porcupine. For the purpose of this report, the Yakataga district, which lies just to the northeast of what is usually considered to be the Southeastern .Alaska region, is included in this section. Gold was known in this region in the days of Russian ownership of Alaska, but no mining was done until 1870-71 when about $40,000 was produced from placers at Windham Bay and on nearby Powers Creek at Sumdum Bay in the Juneau district (Buddington and Chapin, 1929, p. 8). The important discoveries in the Juneau district were not made until the period 1880-85. During the 1890's and early 1900's lode gold mines began significant production in the Ketchikan and Chichagof districts, and beach placers were mined in the Y akatag a district. The Alaska Juneau mine in the Juneau district yielded the bulk of the gold produced in the Southeastern Alaska region. When this mine closed in 1944, the production of the entire region dropped accordingly to only a few hundred ounces annually. Total gold production through 1959 for Southeastern Alaska was 7,788,514 ounces, of which7,614,791 ounces was from lode deposits, 138,503 ounces was from placers, and 35,220 ounces was a byproduct from copper ores from the KetchikanHyder district. This is an extremely mountainous region with complex geologic structures and varied bedrock types. Dominant among the geologic features are the intrusive rocks of Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous age that occupy much of the mainland area of this region. These rocks range in composition from gabbro to granite and are believed to be related to the great composite Coast Range batholith (Buddington and Chapin, 1929, p. 173-253). Adjacent to the intrusive rocks on the west is a belt of low-rank metasedimentary rocks comprising the Wales Group of early Paleozoic age. Other sedimentary rocks in this region represent every period from Ordovician to Cretaceous and have an aggregate thickness of about 50,000 feet. Tertiary clastic rocks and lavas accumulated in a trough between the major mountain ranges. A few sills and dikes of basalt and andesite cut the Tertiary rocks (Buddington and Chapin, 1929, p. 260-275). Quaternary deposits are of minor areal extent and consist mostly of marine gravels, delta deposits, basalt, and tuffs (Buddington and Chapin, 1929, p. 275-281).



Juneau Chichagof Ketchikan-Hyder Porcupine

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